And if you want to dig deeper.
No question. I just wonder if they're going to do a Ms. Marvel movie as well with the extremely popular Muslim teenager version.Fin Fang Foom wrote:Pretty sure the Captain Marvel movie will be about the current girl version.
The way that works is, I'm willing to suspend my disbelief over whatever the author requires. You say you have a dude that can fly or go back in time, I'm down. But once you make the rules for your world, you've got to live by those rules. So if Superdude heals somebody with the power of his mind on Monday, you can't ask me to believe he's gonna sit on the couch when his BFF is paralyzed on Tuesday.Eric the .5b wrote:That's a little thing called suspension of disbelief
Only ones named Jared.D.A. Ridgely wrote:Do shepherds have to use lambskins?Aresen wrote:Question: Does Plastic Man have to use condoms when he has sex?
The first thing that comes to mind is that the human species would be considerably more inbred.Jennifer wrote:Random thought: how different would human biology be, had we, our close primate cousins and our pre-homo sapien ancestors evolved in the southeastern US rather than the African savannas?
So in that case humans would've evolved in the Southwest rather than Southeast, sounds like, since upright bipedalism isn't probably great for ambush/burst hunting.Jennifer wrote:Random thought: how different would human biology be, had we, our close primate cousins and our pre-homo sapien ancestors evolved in the southeastern US rather than the African savannas? Humans (theoretically) cool down via perspiration -- IIRC horses are the only other non-primate animals to sweat, rather than cool down via panting, having blood flow through thinner body parts to let body heat radiate out (as do those elephant species with very large, thin ears), or similar things. And this cooldown method is definitely supposed to be better than panting, because it gives us a lot more stamina: so long as we still have water to keep hydrated, we can keep going FAR longer than a pant-to-cooldown animal can. I recently read about "pursuit predation," which our savanna ancestors are believed to have practiced: though animals such as cheetahs, gazelles and other creatures we presumably used to hunt can definitely outrun us in the short term, in the long term we actually overtake them: not by running, but simply by following and tracking them at an easy walking pace. They'd beat us in any hundred-yard dash, but we'd beat them in a marathon. Hours later, when the prey animal has to stop and pant to cool down, those sweaty human hunters would still be chugging along after them. From the animals' perspective it would've been like us being chased by zombies: they're slow and sluggish and you can outrun them easily in the short term, but sooner or later you're going to get tired, and meanwhile that slow sluggish monster chasing after you still keeps on going.
Anyway, the process "perspire, then the sweat evaporates and draws heat away as it does" presumably works very well in the arid savanna (provided you drink enough to replace the water you lose -- even if that water is as warm as the surrounding air). But it completely backfires in humid Georgia summertime, where sweat won't evaporate until you step indoors where it's air-conditioned. Pursuit predation would NOT work here. Even ordinary "sweating to cool down" doesn't work in the natural environment here: when I'm outside, the only thing that cools me down is sips from the ice water bottle I always carry, and ice water on 90-degree days does not exist naturally in Georgia: THAT requires technology barely a century old. But just "sweating" on its own doesn't cool you off on a typical hot-n-humid day; at best it just makes you feel gross and at worst it could actually make you hotter, as you end up simmering in your own juices.
So had primates and our ancestors evolved in a humid-hot rather than dry-hot environment, we would not have evolved perspiration. Maybe we'd pant to cool down, or maybe we'd have enormous-n-thin elephant ears, or our ancestors would only have been able to live in places where they could submerge themselves in water (or cover themselves with mud as pigs do) several times per day. They couldn't have done pursuit predation, which would've limited what animals they could've hunted, unless they/we evolved some other method of hunting: the ability to run very fast for short bursts of time, perhaps? But with more energy directed toward things like stronger leg and heart muscles -- whatever actual biological changes would be necessary, for the average person to be able to short-term run as fast as the average "fast" animal -- that would leave less energy available to nurture the growth and development of our super-big, super-smart brains....
I think the Southwest would've been too arid for any hominids to evolve, though -- at least large social-animal ones. (Though, of course, if they didn't sweat, they'd need a lot less water per pound of body weight to survive.) How many large warm-blooded animals, regardless of cooldown methods, live in hot regions that aren't merely arid, but desert? If no-sweat hominids evolved in the desert, the only way I can see that working out is if they were nocturnal, and stayed cool by hiding from the daytime heat -- after the first primates came down from the trees, they'd immediately start digging underground burrows.So in that case humans would've evolved in the Southwest rather than Southeast, sounds like, since upright bipedalism isn't probably great for ambush/burst hunting.
However, wolves come close to being pursuit hunters, and they pant, so ... maybe?
But of course, what made sweating an effective means of cooling the body is not just relative hairlessness, but being in an environment dry enough for sweat to evaporate. And that environment sure as HELL is not to be found where I live nowadays.Humans are the only surviving primate species who practice persistence hunting. In addition to a capacity for endurance running, human hunters have comparatively little hair, which makes sweating an effective means of cooling the body. Meanwhile, ungulates and other mammals may need to pant to cool down enough, which also means that they must slow down.
So: definitely persistence hunting in Africa, maybe in parts of Mexico, and possibly in Siberia where staying cool wasn't as much of an issue.Persistence hunting was likely one of a number of tactics used by early hominins, and could have been practised with or without projectile weapons such as darts, spears, or slings.
As hominins adapted to bipedalism they would have lost some speed, becoming less able to catch prey with short, fast charges. They would, however, have gained endurance and become better adapted to persistence hunting. Although many mammals sweat, few have evolved to use sweating for effective thermoregulation, humans and horses being notable exceptions. This coupled with relative hairlessness would have given human hunters an additional advantage by keeping their bodies cool in the midday heat.
The persistence hunt is still practiced by hunter-gatherers in the central Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa, and David Attenborough's documentary The Life of Mammals (program 10, "Food For Thought") showed a bushman hunting a kudu antelope until it collapsed. It is thought that the Tarahumara natives of northwestern Mexico in the Copper Canyon area may have also practiced persistence hunting. The procedure is not to spear the antelope or kudu from a distance, but to run it down in the midday heat, for about two to five hours over 25 to 35 km (16 to 22 mi) in temperatures of about 40 to 42 °C (104 to 108 °F). The hunter chases the kudu, which then runs away out of sight. By tracking it down at a fast running pace the hunter catches up with it before it has had enough time to rest in the shade. The animal is repeatedly chased and tracked down until it is too exhausted to continue running. The hunter then kills it at close range with a spear.
Persistence hunting has even been used against the fastest land animal, the cheetah. In November 2013, four Somali-Kenyan herdsmen from northeast Kenya successfully used persistence hunting in the heat of the day to capture cheetahs who had been killing their goats.
There is evidence that Western peoples, in the absence of hunting tools, have reverted to persistence hunting, such as the case of the Lykov family in Siberia.
Humans are one of only two pursuit predators known to man. Most other predators either ambush their prey like a lion or chase their prey down over a short distance, like a cheetah. Since most animals can outrun us humans were believed to hunt by approaching an animal until it ran away. Then approaching it again. And again. And again. Sooner or later the animal who be to exhausted to run any more and then it was dinner time.
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